What Is Motivation?

Motivation – The processes that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.
» Effort: a measure of intensity or drive.
» Direction: toward organizational goals
» Need: personalized reason to exert effort

Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.
Need
An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.
An unsatisfied need creates tension which is reduced by an individual’s efforts to satisfy the need.


Early Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
MacGregor’s Theories X and Y
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs.
» Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.
» Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
» Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.
Hierarchy of needs
» Lower-order (external): physiological, safety
» Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X
» Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.
Theory Y
» Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.
Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
Early Theories of Motivation
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.
» Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction.
» Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction.
Elements : achievement, recognition, job itself, advancement, growth

Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance.
» The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.

Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Three-Needs Theory
Goal-Setting Theory
Reinforcement Theory
Designing Motivating Jobs
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory

achievement
   recognition

work itself
responsibility
advancement
growth

Company policy & adm
Supervision
Relationship w/ suprv

Work condition
Salary

Relationship w/ peers
Personal life
Relationship w/ subordinates
Status
security





Motivation and Needs
Three-Needs Theory
There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work.
Need for achievement (nAch)
» The drive to excel and succeed
Need for power (nPow)
» The need to influence the behavior of others
Need of affiliation (nAff)
» The desire for interpersonal relationships
Motivation and Goals
Goal-Setting Theory
Proposes that setting goals that are accepted, specific, and challenging yet achievable will result in higher performance than having no or easy goals.
Benefits of Participation in Goal-Setting
Increases the acceptance of goals.
Fosters commitment to difficult, public goals.
Provides for self-feedback (internal locus of control) that guides behavior and motivates performance (self-efficacy).
Motivation and Behavior
Reinforcement Theory
Assumes that a desired behavior is a function of its consequences, is externally caused, and if reinforced, is likely to be repeated.
» Positive reinforcement is preferred for its long-term effects on performance
» Ignoring undesired behavior is better than punishment which may create additional dysfunctional behaviors.


Designing Motivating Jobs
Job Design
The way into which tasks can be combined to form complete  jobs.
Factors influencing job design:
» Changing organizational environment/structure
» The organization’s technology
» Employees’ skill, abilities, and preferences
Job enlargement
» Increasing the scope (number of tasks) in a job.
Job enrichment
» Increasing responsibility and autonomy (depth) in a job.
Designing Motivating Jobs
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
A conceptual framework for designing motivating jobs that create meaningful work experiences that satisfy employees’ growth needs.
Five primary job characteristics:
» Skill variety: how many skills and talents are needed?
» Task identity: does the job produced a completed work?
» Task significance: how important is the job?
» Autonomy: how independence do the jobholder have?
» Feedback: do workers know how well they are doing?
Designing Motivating Jobs
Suggestions for Using the JCM
Combine tasks (job enlargement) to create more meaningful work.
Create natural work units to make employees’ work important and whole.
Establish external and internal client relationships to provide feedback.
Expand jobs vertically (job enrichment) by giving employees more autonomy.
Open feedback channels to let employees know how well they are doing.
Motivation and Perception
Equity Theory
Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others.
» If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity (fairness) exists.
» If the ratios are perceived as unequal, inequity exists and the person feels under- or over-rewarded.
» When inequities occur, employees will attempt to do something to rebalance the ratios (seek justice).
Motivation and Perception
Equity Theory (cont’d)
Employee responses to perceived inequities:
» Distort own or others’ ratios.
» Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes.
» Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek greater rewards).
» Choose a different comparison (referent) other (person, systems, or self).
» Quit their job.
Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature of organizational rewards.
Motivation and Perception
Equity Theory (cont’d)
Distributive justice
» The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e., who received what).
Influences an employee’s satisfaction.
Distributive
» The perceived fairness of the process use to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e., how who received what).
Affects an employee’s organizational commitment.
Motivation, Perception, and Behavior
Expectancy Theory
States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Key to the theory is understanding and managing employee goals and the linkages among and between effort, performance and rewards.
» Effort: employee abilities and training/development
» Performance: valid appraisal systems
» Rewards (goals): understanding employee needs
Motivation, Perception, and Behavior
Expectancy Relationships
Expectancy (effort-performance linkage)
» The perceived probability that an individual’s effort will result in a certain level of performance.
Instrumentality
» The perception that a particular level of performance will result in the attaining a desired outcome (reward).
Valence
» The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual.
Motivation Models Porter and Lawler









Current Issues in Motivation
Cross-Cultural Challenges
Motivational programs are most applicable in cultures where individualism and quality of life are cultural characteristics
» Uncertainty avoidance of some cultures inverts Maslow’s needs hierarchy.
» The need for achievement (nAch) is lacking in other cultures.
» Collectivist cultures view rewards as “entitlements” to be distributed based on individual needs, not individual performance.
Current Issues in Motivation
Cross-Cultural Consistencies
Interesting work is widely desired, as is growth, achievement, and responsibility.
Motivating Unique Groups of Workers
Motivating a diverse workforce through flexibility:
» Men desire more autonomy than do women.
» Women desire to learning opportunities, flexible work schedules, and good interpersonal relations.
Current Issues in Motivation
Flexible Work/Job schedules
Compressed work week
» Longer daily hours, but fewer days
Flexible work hours (flextime)
» Specific weekly hours with varying arrival, departure, lunch and break times around certain core hours during which all employees must be present.
Job Sharing
» Having two or more people split a full-time job.
Telecommuting
» Having employees work from home using computer links.
Current Issues in Motivation
Motivating Professionals
Characteristics of professionals
» Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise.
» Loyalty is to their profession, not to the employer
» Have the need to regularly update their knowledge
» Don’t define their workweek as 8:00 am to 5:00 pm.
Motivators for professionals
» Job challenge
» Organizational support of their work
Current Issues in Motivation
Motivating Contingent Workers
Opportunity to become a permanent employee.
Opportunity for training
Equity in compensation and benefits
Motivating Low-Skilled, Minimum-Wage Employees
Employee recognition programs
Providing sincere praise
Current Issues in Motivation
Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs
Open-book management
» Involving employees in workplace decision by opening up the financial statements of the employer.
Employee recognition programs
» Giving personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.
Pay-for-performance
» Variable compensation plans that reward employees on the basis of their performance:
Piece rates, wage incentives, profit-sharing, and lump-sum bonuses
Current Issues in Motivation
Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs (cont’d)
Stock option programs
» Using financial instruments (in lieu of monetary compensation) that give employees the right to purchase shares of company stock at a set (option) price.
» Options have value if the stock price rises above the set price; they are worthless if the stock price falls below the option price.
From Theory to Practice:
Guidelines for Motivating Employees
Recognize individual differences
Match people to jobs
Use goals
Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable
Individualize rewards
Link rewards to performance
Check the system for equity
Use recognition
Don’t ignore money

Designing Motivating Jobs
Job Design
The way into which tasks can be combined to form complete  jobs.
Factors influencing job design:
» Changing organizational environment/structure
» The organization’s technology
» Employees’ skill, abilities, and preferences
Job enlargement
» Increasing the scope (number of tasks) in a job.
Job enrichment
» Increasing responsibility and autonomy (depth) in a job.
Kepemimpinan
Proses untuk mendorong dan membantu orang lain untuk bekerja secara antusias dalam pencapaian tujuan
Kepemimpinan yang berhasil  bergantung pada perilaku, ketrampilan, tindakan yang tepat, bukan pada ciri pribadi
Ketrampilan Pemimpin
Ketrampilan teknis ; mengacu pada pengetahuan dan ketrampilan
Ketrampilan manusiawi ; kemampuan bekerja secara efektif dengan orang-orang dan membina kerja tim
Ketrampilan konseptual ; kemampuan untuk berpikir dalam kaitannya dengan model, kerangka, hubungan yang luas
MODEL KEPEMIMPINAN DGN PENEKANAN PADA PERAN KEKUASAAN
GAYA KEPEMIMPINAN SITUASIONAL
P 1
DIREKTIF TINGGI DAN SUPORTIF RENDAH
KOMUNIKASI 1 ARAH, PIMPINAN MEMBATASI PERAN BAWAHAN
PEMECAHAN MASALAH DAN PENGM KEPUTUSAN TANGGUNGJWB PEMIMPIN
PEKERJAAN DIAWASI KETAT
DISEBUT JH TIPE TELLING
P 2
DIREKTIF DAN SUPORTIF TINGGI
KOMUNIKASI 2 ARAH DAN MEMBERIKAN DUKUNGAN KPD BAWAHAN
PEMIMPIN MAU MENDENGAR KELUHAN & PERASAAN BAWAHAN MENGENAI KEPUTUSAN
DISEBUT JG TIPE SELLING



P 3
SUPORTIF TINGGI DAN DIREKTIF RENDAH
PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN PIMPINAN DAN BAWAHAN SEIMBANG
KOMUNIKASI 2 ARAH MENINGKAT
P 4
DIREKTIF DAN SUPORTIF RENDAH
MENDISKUSIKAN MASALAH YG DIHADAPI DGN BAWAHAN
PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN OLH BAWAHAN
BAWAHAN MENETUKAN LANGKAH-LANGKAH BGMN PENG. KEPUTUSAN
LIMA PENDEKATAN SITUASIONAL YG PERLU DIPERTIMBANGKAN
MODEL FIEDLER
HERSEY – BLANCHARD
TEORI PERTUKARAN PEMIMPIN-ANGGOTA
MODEL JALUR TUJUAN
MODEL PARTISIPASI PEMIMPIN
Model Kepemimpinan jalur-tujuan
Menekankan dua peran utama :
Penyusunan tujuan ; merupakan upaya penetapan sasaran dan tujuan bagi prestasi yang berhasil baik jangka pendek dan panjang
Peningkatan jalur
Penyusunan tujuan
Penjelasan tujuan ; pemimpin perlu menjelaskan maksud dibalik tujuan dan perlunya tujuan itu
Tujuan spesifik ; perlu disusun sekhusus mungkin agar pegawai dapat mengetahui saat tercapainya 7-an
Kesukaran tujuan
Balikan tentang kemajuan tujuan ; informasi tentang seberapa baik upaya yang telah dilakukan
Peningkatan Jalur
Dukungan tugas dan psikologis
Pemodelan peran (role modelling)
Kuasa Organisasi :
Kuasa pribadi
Kuasa legitimasi
Kuasa ahli
Kuasa politik

MBO
Pendekatan populer kepemimpinan jalur – tujuan
Paling sesuai bagi pegawai manajerial, profesional, dan penjualan serta yg bekerja mandiri.
Pegawai memiliki peran lebih besar dalam menimbang prestasi mereka sendiri
Teori X dan Teori Y
Teori x
Tidak suka bekerja dan berusaha menghindar
Kurang bertanggungjawab, ambisi, mementingkan rasa aman
Dipaksa dan diancan untuk berkerja
Teori y
Bekerja = bermain atau istirahat
Malas,
Akan mengarahkan dan mengendalikan diri sendiri untuk mencapai tujuan
Memiliki potensial, menerima dan mencari tanggung jawab, punya imajinasi, kepandaian
Pendekatan Pemimpin
Kepemimpinan positif ; menekankan imbalan-ekonomik, pendidikan pegawai yang lebih baik, dituntut mandiri dan faktor lain yang membuat motivasi tinggi
Kepemimpinan negatif ; penekanan pada hukuman, kerugian manusiawi, pemimpin mendominasi dan merasa unggul
Partisipasi Pegawai
Adalah keterlibatan mental dan emosional orang-orang dalam situasi kelompok yang mendorong mereka untuk memberikan kontribusi kepada tujuan kelompok.
Sarana membina nilai-nilai manusiawi tertentu
Menghendaki adanya upaya jangka panjang para pemimpin organisasi
Tiga Gagasan Penting dalam Partisipasi
Keterlibatan mental dan emosi; partisipasi berarti keterlibatan mental dan emosional
Motivasi kontribusi; memotivasi orang untuk memberikan kontribusi, diberi kesempatan untuk menyalurkan inisiatif dan kreatifitas guna mencapai tujuan organisasi ( = teori y)
Menerima tanggungjawab; partisipasi mendorong orang untuk menerima tanggungjawab
Dinamika Antar Pribadi dan Kelompok
Konflik timbul karena ketidaksepakatan atas tujuan atau metode untuk mencapainya
Sumber-umber konflik antarpribadi:
Perubahan organisasi
Pertikaian pribadi
Perangkat nilai yang berbeda
Ancaman terhadap status
Perbedaan persepsi
Perilaku Asertif
Sarana untuk mengajarkan seperangkat perilaku alternatif kepada orang-orang
Orang yang asertif : Mengungkapkan perasaan mereka, meminta bantuan, memberi & menerima pujian, meminta perubahan perilaku & menolak permintaan yang tidak nalar
Tujuan PA, membantu orang untuk mengembangkan cara efektif menangani masalah
Definisi Kelompok
2 individu atau lebih, yang berinteraksi dan saling bergantung utk mencapai sasaran tertentu
Macam-macam Kelompok
Formal : ditandai oleh struktur organisasi
Informal : tidak terstruktur               muncul         sebagai tanggapan thd kebutuhan akan kontakn sosial
Komando : manajer            bawahan langsung
Tugas : bekerja bersama dlm 1 tim
Kepentingan : kesamaan dlm kepentingan
Persahabatan : kontak sosial              berbagai karakteristik

Alasan Timbulnya Kelompok
Keamanan
Status
Penghargaan diri
Pertalian
Kekuasaan
Prestasi baik

Tahap Perkembangan Kelompok
Pembentukan
Keributan
Penormaan
Pengerjaan
Penundaan




Dinamika Kelompok
Proses interaksi oang-orang secara langsung dalam kelompok kecil
Memiliki kandungan yang berbeda dari anggotanya
Rapat adalah bentuk aktivitas kelompok dan digunakan untuk mendukung suatu keputusan
Pendekatan Terstruktur
Brainstorming
Kelompok minimal
Metode delphi
Mengelola Perubahan
Semua jenis pegawai cenderung menolak perubahan karena adanya kerugian batin
Tiga jenis penolakan :
Logis, berdasar nalar dan ilmiah
Psikologis, berdasar emosi, sentimen dan sikap
Sosiologis, berdasar kepentingan dan nilai kelompok
Membangun Dukungan Untuk Perubahan
Memanfaatkan kekuatan kelompok
Kepemimpinan bagi perubahan
Partisipasi
Imbalan bersama
Rasa aman pegawai
Komunikasi
Bekerjasama dengan serikat pekerja


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